For this assignment we have to prepare a short illustrated talk which must last 10 minuets and will be followed by a 5 minuet Q&A. The presentation counts for 25% of the final grade and it must investigate the working practices of my given practitioner in relation to a particular theme. The project will enable me to see, research and explore the work of an individual while also seeking out a wider range of photographers and artists. I need to make sure that I consider links between specific bodies of work, single images, methods and agendas.
I was given the practitioner Hannah Hoch and so far have gathered a wide range of information on her and have begun to build up an in-depth biography of her work and the political and social context behind her work. I took out the book Cut with the Kitchen Knife: Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Hoch By Maud Lavin and started to make notes.
Hoch produced work in response to times of great social and political change. She focused on how women were being objectified and the fear and anger she felt towards the rapidly changing expectations and identities of women. In response to this she cut up highly posed images from the mass media and juxtaposed them with images of political leaders and objects and buildings of significant importance in the Weimar society.
Important and significant pieces of work include Dada Ernst & Cut with the Kitchen Knife: Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer Belly.
- Dada Ernst shows the media’s representation of the ‘new woman’ and how this contributed to feminine identity as well as the power and economic status they have in society.
- Cut with the kitchen knife acts as a satirical social commentary on gender roles and the exaggerated poses and objects mock politicians. I think I am going to focus on analysing and unpicking these two pieces of work.
Final Presentation (Keynote)
Slide 1 – Introduction to the line of inquiry
In this presentation I am going to be trying to answer the question of ‘How did the photomontages created by Hannah Hoch during the Dada movement reflect political change in the Weimar republic? I will be investigating the political propaganda and social criticism in her work and how it portrayed the political and social change in Weimar society.
Slide 2 – Background on Hannah
Hannah Hoch was born in Berlin in 1889 and attended the Collage of Arts and Craft there where she studied graphic design. She was best known for her photomontage work.
Slide 3 – Weimar Republic
After world war 1 Germany was in political chaos and there was tension between the far left and far right winged parties, in turn this caused violence and civil unrest. In 1919 the Weimar Republic was formed however it still faced copious economic, social and political problems in particular political extremists. All of these issues surrounding the Weimar republic are represented in Hoch’s dada work.
Slide 4 – Dada Movement
This was an artistic and literary movement which formed in 1916 in response to the chaos of world war 1 and bourgeois society. They challenged every convention and were fuelled by the desire to make anti-art and emphasise art’s irrelevance through new techniques and practices such as collages and photomontages. They wanted their work to provoke a response from the viewer, typically shock or outrage and as a result their work was nonsensical and almost whimsy.
Slide 5 – Women in Dada
Hoch’s work gained recognition within dada despite being the only women in the movement and receiving comments from fellow dadaists such as Hans Richter who referred to her as “the girl who procured sandwiches, beer and coffee, on a limited budget”. Although many of her fellow dadaists claimed their work to change moral views and represent gender equality it is not evident in their work however it was in Hoch’s. Therefore I believe that these comments made Hoch stronger as an artist and more determined to prove herself within dada and to the rest of the Weimar society and show that women could be as powerful has men.
Slide 6 – Social and Political Commentaries
After joining dada, her work developed greatly into social and political commentaries and criticism for the failings of the Weimar society and expressed her anger, fear and frustrations towards the government and society. In particular the representation of the ‘New Woman’ which the mass media presented to Germany. Hoch began to use her work to propagandise the Weimar society and also question the effectiveness of art.
Slide 7 – Cut with the Kitchen Knife
In 1919 Hoch produced a piece called ‘Cut with the Kitchen Knife: Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer Belly’ which would become one of her most influential and well known pieces of work. The photomontage functions as a dadaist view point on the political chaos in Weimar society. It contains images of political leaders, famous artists, sports stars and significant objects and buildings within the Weimar society which have been taken from the mass media.
The title of this piece alone represents Hoch’s opinion of the Weimar society, the phrase ‘beer belly’ gives connotations of greed and a heavy handed nature of the bourgeois society. In turn this makes it clear that the piece is about the male dominated society and the gender issues in Germany at the time.
The photomontage can be split up into quadrants; However the overall appearance of the photomontage is fragmented and disjointed, creating a sense of chaos and disorder. This is a analogy for the political turmoil happening within Germany. It could even be said that the busyness of the image creates a sense of change, and that so many things are happening it is hard to focus on just one thing. Again I believe that this reflects how society at the time was changing rapidly as the country became modernised and how there was so many problems within the Weimar society it was hard for the government to focus on one thing.
In addition to this, embedded throughout the montage are images of machinery and factories, not only does Hoch use this to symbolise the rapid industrialisation of Germany it could also have multiple layers of meaning such as being a metaphor for how the government are almost like a machine and how Germany was dominated by men. They are driving out all of these new policies in attempt to resolve the chaos however they are not doing so in an human way, they are not meeting the needs of the people. As a result of this, the booming industry is not displayed in a proud or honourable manner, instead it is scattered and in-cohesive, to the point where it is almost theatrical. Consequently the piece becomes whimsical and mocks the political discord.
Upper Right: Anti Dada – The upper right side is the anti-dada movement. Here images of political leaders are clustered together. The portrait of the recently deposed emperor Wilhem ii dominates the upper right hand side and Hoch makes a point of recreating his moustache using an image of two wrestlers, Hoch is mocking Wilhem. It could also be said that the wrestlers represent her anger towards him as at the time he was said to be the man who lead Germany into war and is the main reason behind the many social and political problems Germany was facing, such as unemployment which is shown through the image of people lining up at an employment office in Berlin to the right of Wilhem’s head.
Lower Right: Dadaists – In the lower right section of the montage Hoch includes images of revolutionary figures such as Marx and Lenin as well as images of people who were inspirational to herself such as other members of the dada movement, dancers and athletes. The heads of two male dadaists are positioned on top of a ballerina, in placing the heads on a female body Hoch has emasculated them and stripped them of their power. Women play an important role within the montage and are assigned important roles. They represent Hoch’s feminist views and her battle for women’s rights in Germany. By juxtaposing female bodies with heads of men in power she is trying to reverse the power men have and give women more power than men.
Another significant detail in the lower right hand corner is the map of Europe which shows all of the countries which women are allowed to vote. Hoch has also added a picture of herself onto the map, this further reminds the viewer of her interest in gender equality and women’s rights not only in society but because it is placed in the ‘dadaists’ section of the montage, her interest in gender equality in the art world.
Lower Left: Dada Persuasion – In this section the renowned artist and performer Niddy Impekoven is shown in a pirouette position and this combined with other images of ice skaters and dancers are allegorical expressions for women’s freedom and liberation, something which Hoch believed strongly in. On their own they do not have a large impact however combined they play a pivotal role within the montage.
Upper Left: Dada Propaganda- On the left it is dada propaganda (hehe young man..dada is not an art trend and invest your money in dada, join dada) not a phase, it’s more meaningful
Slide 8 – Other dada montages
Hoch went on to create more montages during her time in Dada, many of them reinforcing her earlier message in ‘Cut with the Kitchen Knife’. The montages continued to reflect the social and political change in Germany. The montages were displayed in galleries which made it accessible for large audiences. The pieces posed questions for viewers about avant-garde and the mass culture stereotypes of women.
Slide 9 – The Beautiful Girl
The next piece which I believe to be another one of her most significant pieces of work is called ‘The beautiful Girl’. In this piece Hoch focuses more heavily on the representation of women and the image of the ‘new woman’. Wanted to show how life during the Weimar period was very unstable, causing people to fear the future and constantly have a feeling of instability. Adding to this the mass media propagated images of modernisation and the changing identities and expectations of women.
It can be argued that by using images from the mass media of the ‘new women’ and rearranging them in a way which made sense to her, Hoch is also dictating how women should be represented. Perhaps women reading the magazines felt empowered by the images because they were showing women in a new light, and offering them a fantasy of the women they could be. A women with more freedom, less restraints and imitations in a male dominated society.
The nature of the photomontage means that the propaganda is open ended, because it is open to the viewers interpretation therefore it has no limits. The viewer plays an important role in constructing the meaning, although Hoch created the montage using her own ideas the viewer interprets it differently. However the underlying concept Hoch played on is that the viewer and her have a shared knowledge of Weimar society. Therefore this is why the montage was so powerful at the time it was produced.
Slide 11 – Influences
- Georg Grosz’s series of work – Prostitutes, Politicians and Profiteers
- Will Steacy – Down these mean streets
Her work on the new woman set her apart from other dadaists – contrasts George Grosz’s work which is misogynistic and makes a point of highlighting prostitutes in Berlin and portraying women in a negative light. In her work gender roles were more prominent and made a point of putting women in a position of power because she wanted new freedoms for women.
Slide 12 – How her work changed
Her work changed over time but she remained to use images from the mass media – the work became more ambiguous (painting Roma 1925) to very critical montages (Deutches Madchen 1930) – challenged gender stereotypes head on
– Scrapbook of clippings from magazines – the image of the ‘new woman’ and of different cultures
Slide 13 – Conclusion
The questions Hoch raised such as the representation of women in the media are still relevant today. Hoch also emphasises that although it was a period of turmoil, change was happening. Women were beginning to have more freedom and power but the fragmentation in the montages shows that it was not straightforward.
Hoch’s work reflected her interest in allegorical uses of montage to represent the society, gender roles and modernity of Weimar Germany. The way in which women were represented in Hoch’s work also takes on a political meaning in the sense that it challenged the distribution of power in society and it begins to break down the barrier between men and women. Hoch also emphasises that although it was a period of turmoil, change was happening. Women were beginning to have more freedom and power but the fragmentation in the montages shows that it was not straightforward.